Antioxidants Negate Harmful Effects of Radiation

Researchers discovered that in mouse models, low doses of radiation increase p53 mutations in cells, which is a genetic change associated with cancer. To combat this negative effect, the investigators found that giving mice an antioxidant prior to radiation stimulated proliferation of healthy cells that replaced the p53-mutant cells. For this study, published in Cell Stem Cell , the scientists tracked mouse cells during low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) and discovered that this procedure promot...
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Artificial Intelligence: Useful for Designing Clinical Trials

Due to lackluster recruiting techniques, a suboptimal number of patients are selected to participate in clinical trials. In addition, the researchers often have limited ability to observe and coach patients during clinical trials. These factors contribute to high clinical trial failure rates, which have a negative impact on the drug development cycle, not to mention 10 to 15 years and hundreds of millions of dollars wasted. However, scientists have proposed a potential solution to this problem: ...
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Mystery Behind 5-FU Resistance Solved

According to a recent study, the Bok protein from the BCL-2 protein family was discovered to play a role in resistance to the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). An antimetabolite, 5-FU is an important drug used for many cancers including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, head and neck cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, thymic cancers, cervical cancer, and bladder cancer, among others. 5-Fluorouracil works by incorporating toxic substances into cancerous cells, disrupti...
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Ramucirumab/Pembrolizumab in Patients With NSCLC, Gastric Cancer, or Urothelial Carcinoma

A phase 1a/b trial (NCT02443324) reports that ramucirumab in conjunction with pembrolizumab is effective in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastroesophageal cancer, or urothelial carcinomas. Ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody, blocks vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which allows cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Pembrolizumab is also a monoclonal antibody, but it works by blocking programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), in ...
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Light Therapy: Updated Guidelines for Treating Oral Mucositis

Oral mucositis (OM), a common complication of chemotherapy and radiation for patients with cancer, occurs when the cancer treatment breaks down the rapidly dividing epithelial cells lining the mouth. This leads to very painful sores in the mouth, gums, or tongue, among other debilitating symptoms. This complication is considered to be one of the most disturbing and painful for cancer patients. In order to help combat this condition, researchers reviewed and updated OM guidelines regarding photob...
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